﻿ 3D Display of Spirals on an Egg and an Apple TDCC Laboratory

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3D Display of Spirals on an Egg and an Apple

Mr. Joshua Gottdenker (in Sweden), Mr. Svein Daniel Solvenus (in Norway),
Mr. Yasuyuki ASAI (Machida city in Japan) and Nobuo YAMAMOTO

 I received from Mr. Joshua Gottdenker the message in 2011 that he wants to make a model of shape similar to the spherical spiral onto an egg instead of a sphere.   Then, I make an equation of spiral on egg surface under the collaboration and instruction given by Mr. SuugakuDokugakujuku Jukuchou (whose correct name is Mr. Yasuyuki ASAI), and obtain the coordinates data of the spiral by computer calculation.    Soon after I sent the date written in an Excel file to Mr. Joshua and also to Mr. Svein Daniel Solvenus who is contact to me in chance at the same time, they create several 3D figures of both egg and apple, and send me them.    1. General formulation     General 3D display method of spiral, which is indicated by Mr. Yasuyuki ASAI, is described below.   It is considered general if the original 2D closed curve is symmetric around a coordinate axis.   We start from the following equation which is rewritten in (z, x) plane from (x, y) plane as the symmetric axis is in the vertical direction. ,                      (1) where t is an intermediate variable.   When a closed curve revolves around the symmetry axis z, the following equation expressed such a displayed closed surface is written as the follows; ,                      (2) where indicates the phase angle in (y, z) plane and is refined in 0 < < 2 .   In the next, some relationship of the intermediate variable t and the phase angle is needed.   The most simple relation is the following by using some constant as .                      (3) 2. Spiral on Egg   Though the equation of egg shaped curve in (x, y) plane is given in the Eq.(9b) in the page of "egg shaped curve", it is written as the following in the same as Eq.(1). .                      (4)    We may rewite the followings in the same as Eq.(2) according to the procedure described in the previous section. ,                      (5) where indicates the phase angle in (y, z) plane and is refined in 0 < < 2 .   As the relationship of the intermediate variable t and the phase angle , we will treat the case that .                      (6)    In the result of the calculation of Eq.(5), 3D displays of Figs.1 and 2 are obtained.   These figures are supplied by Mr. Joshua Gottdenker and Mr. Svein Daniel Solvenus.   I appreciate them.   Thank you.       If we use the following equation instead of Eq.(6), Figs 3 and 4 are obtained.   These are also supplied by Mr. Joshua and Mr. Daniel. .                      (7)  Fig.1 Spiral on egg made by Mr. Joshua with the use of Eqs.(5) and (6) Fig.2 Spiral on egg made by Mr. Daniel with the use of Eqs.(5) and (6)  Fig.3 Spiral on egg made by Mr. Joshua with the use of Eqs.(5) and (7) Fig.4 Spiral on egg made by Mr. Daniel with the use of Eqs.(5) and (7)

 In purpose to calculate the numerical coordinates data of 3D egg spiral as shown in Figs.1 to 4, a C++ program originated from Eqs.(5) and (7) is given by .     By executing the either C++ program, a text file named "egg_spiral.txt" including the calculated data is produced.    Each interval of these data is divided by 'comma'.    After moving the calculated data into an Excel file, we obtain a spiral on an egg with the use of a graph wizard attached on the Excel file.

3. Spiral on an Apple Surface

Though the equation of apple shaped curve in (x, y) plane is given in the Eq.(3) in the page of "apple shaped curve", it is written as the following to give a spiral on an apple surface in the same process to Eqs.(1) and (2). ,                      (8)
where indicates the phase angle in (y, z) plane and is refined in 0 < < 2 .   In this time, we will use Eq.(3) as the relationship of the intermediate variable t and the phase angle .
Then, with the use of the 3D data calculated by Eqs.(3) and (8) with computer, 3D figures made are obtained by Mr. Joshua Gottdenker as seen in Figs.5 and 6.   In addition, the front view and plan are displayed by Yamamoto as shown in Fig.7.  Fig.5 Spiral on apple made by Mr. Joshua Gottdenker with the use of Eqs.(3) and (8) Fig.6 The same as the left Fig.7 Front view and plan of Spiral on apple
with the use of Eqs.(3) and (8)

 In purpose to calculate the numerical coordinates data of a spiral on an apple surface as shown in Figs.5, 6 and 7, a C++ program originated from Eqs.(3) and (8) is given by .    By executing the C++ program, a text file named "apple_spiral.txt" including the calculated data is produced.    Each interval of these data is divided by 'comma'.    After moving these calculated data into an Excel file, we obtain a spiral with the use of a graph wizard attached on the Excel file.

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Updated: 2011.01.22, edited by N. Yamamoto.
Revised on Mar. 16, 2015, Jul. 24, 2016 Yasuyuki, May 05, 2020, Oct. 07, 2020, Jan. 30, 2021, May 05, 2021 and Mar. 22, 2022.